Have you ever wondered how this seemingly bizarre tradition came to be?
Well, it turns out Easter actually began as a pagan festival celebrating spring in the Northern Hemisphere, long before the advent of Christianity.
“Since pre-historic times, people have celebrated the equinoxes and the solstices as sacred times,” University of Sydney Professor Carole Cusack said.
“The spring equinox is a day where the amount of dark and the amount of daylight is exactly identical, so you can tell that you’re emerging from winter because the daylight and the dark have come back into balance.
“People mapped their whole life according to the patterns of nature.”
Following the advent of Christianity, the Easter period became associated with the resurrection of Christ.
“In the first couple of centuries after Jesus’s life, feast days in the new Christian church were attached to old pagan festivals,” Professor Cusack said.
“Spring festivals with the theme of new life and relief from the cold of winter became connected explicitly to Jesus having conquered death by being resurrected after the crucifixion.”
Easter’s changing date
In 325AD the first major church council, the Council of Nicaea, determined that Easter should fall on the Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox.
That is why the date moves and why Easter festivities are often referred to as “moveable feasts”.
“There’s a defined period between March 25 and April 25 on which Easter Sunday must fall, and that’s determined by the movement of the planets and the Sun,” Professor Cusack said.
Pascha, Easter and the goddess of spring
In most countries in Europe, the name for Easter is derived from the Jewish festival of Passover.
“So in Greek the feast is called Pascha, in Italian Pasqua, in Danish it is Paaske, and in French it is Paques,” Professor Cusack said.
But in English-speaking countries, and in Germany, Easter takes its name from a pagan goddess from Anglo-Saxon England who was described in a book by the eighth-century English monk Bede.
“Eostre was a goddess of spring or renewal and that’s why her feast is attached to the vernal equinox,” Professor Cusack said.
“In Germany the festival is called Ostern, and the goddess is called Ostara.”
Rabbits and eggs as ancient symbols of new life
Many of the pagan customs associated with the celebration of spring eventually became absorbed within Christianity as symbols of the resurrection of Jesus.
“Eggs, as a symbol of new life, became a common people’s explanation of the resurrection; after the chill of the winter months, nature was coming to life again,” Professor Cusack said.
During the Middle Ages, people began decorating eggs and eating them as a treat following mass on Easter Sunday after fasting through Lent.
“This is actually something that still happens, especially in eastern European countries like Poland,” Professor Cusack said.
“The custom of decorating hard-boiled eggs or blown eggs is still a very popular folk custom.”
Rabbits and hares are also associated with fertility and were symbols linked to the goddess Eostre.
The first association of the rabbit with Easter, according to Professor Cusack, was a mention of the “Easter hare” in a book by German professor of medicine Georg Franck von Franckenau published in 1722.
“He recalls a folklore that hares would hide the coloured eggs that children hunted for, which suggests to us that as early as the 18th century, decorated eggs were hidden in gardens for egg hunts,” Professor Cusack said.
Commercialisation, confectionery and greeting cards
Commercialisation during the 19th century saw rabbits become a popular symbol of Easter with the growth of the greeting card industry.
“Postage services became affordable and people wanted to keep in touch with people,” Professor Cusack said.
“Card companies like Hallmark became big by launching images of cute little rabbits and Easter eggs on cards.”
The first edible Easter bunnies made from sugared pastry were made in Germany in the 19th century.
Big confectionery companies, like Cadbury in England, started manufacturing chocolate eggs.
“Chocolate that used to be something that’s bitter and drunk became something that was sweetened and turned into a confectionery treat,” Professor Cusack said.
“Easter eggs were one of the areas of marketing for chocolate.”
Today, chocolate eggs and egg hunts are a popular part of Easter celebrations around the world.
Easter in Australia today
Australia’s significant public holiday periods of Easter and Christmas are based on Christian European celebrations.
So although autumn is in full swing and winter is coming in the Southern Hemisphere, rabbits and eggs as symbols of spring remain part of Australian festivities.
On Easter Sunday, the Easter bunny will deliver chocolate eggs to children and there will be egg hunts in backyards and parks across Australia.
Christian Australians will attend church services and the majority of secular Australians will enjoy the four-day weekend feasting and relaxing with family and friends.
All the while, the chocolate bunnies and eggs serve as a reminder of Easter’s ancient origins and Christian traditions.
Anti-Judiasm and the Council of Nicea
Written by Rick Arahon Chamberlain
The Council of Nicea was convened in 325 CE (AD) by Constantine, Emperor of the Roman Empire. Constantine, a worshipper of the ‘sun-god,’ technically ‘converted’ to Christianity. His reign marked the alliance of church and state. Christians were no longer persecuted by the pagans. Instead, Christians persecuted others (including other Christians) with a zeal and a vengeance that would shock the pagans. More Christians were killed (by other Christians!) in the first century after the Council of Nicea than had been killed by pagans in the century before Nicea.
Constantine, only one year after convening the Council of Nicea, had his own son (Crispus) put to death. Later he suffocated Fausta (his wife) in an overheated bath. Then he had his sister’s son flogged to death and her husband strangled. (1) It was also during the reign of Constantine that the cross became a sacred symbol in Christianity, just as it had been in pagan religions.(2)Throughout his reign, Constantine treated the bishops as political aides. He agreed to enforce whatever opinion the majority of the bishops formulated.
The Jewish Temple was destroyed in 70 CE by the Romans under Titus. Then Israel was totally destroyed as a nation with the defeat of Bar Kochba (a false Messiah) in 135 CE. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were massacred. Most of the survivors were dispersed into the Gamut (Diaspora or Exile), many of who were sold into slavery. The final utter defeat of Israel was seen by many Christians as a sign that Israel was rejected by her God. The “Church” was seen as the new Israel. Anti-Semitism began to take a firm hold on Christianity. By the time that Constantine called the first general church council at Nicea in 325, anti-Semitism was endemic in the “Church.” The Council of Nicea was attended by 318 bishops, none of whom were of Jewish ancestry.
Passover was still celebrated by the Gentile Christian church, but the Gentiles began to see a need to differentiate “their” Passover from the Jewish Passover. The bishops decided to move the Christian celebration of Passover to the first Sunday after the Jewish Passover (in most years). The Jewish Passover always falls on the 14th day of Abib (Nisan), which can fall on any day of the week. Centuries later, the very name of Passover (or Pesakh) also became distasteful to the Gentile church, and terms such as Easter (the name of a pagan goddess) were adopted by the increasingly paganized church. Occasionally, as in 1989, the Christian observance of Easter is almost a month before Passover.
The first edict in favor of the ‘Venerable Day of the Sun” (Sunday) was made at the Council of Nicea. Until this time, both Christian and Jew generally observed the seventh day Sabbath, according to the Biblical commandment.
Civil legislation enforced the decrees of the Council of Nicea. This was a victory over the truth by civil legislation. Constantine, as emperor, presided over the entire council. The decisions of the 318 church bishops were endorsed by civil law and backed by military power.
The churches which flourished in worldly wealth were the primary churches represented by this Council. The poor and humble churches could not afford to send representatives over a thousand miles away. The Catholic Encyclopedia says, “Some bishops, blinded by the splendor of the court, even went so far as to laud the emperor as an angel of God, as a sacred being, and to prophesy that he would, like the Son of God, reign in heavens (3)
Nicea, with its theological anti-Judaism, laid the groundwork for anti-Semitic legislation of later church councils. The Council of Antioch (341 CE) prohibited Christians from celebrating Passover with the Jews. The Council of Laodicea in the same century forbade Christians from observing the Jewish (and biblical) Sabbath. (Some Christians had been observing both Sunday and the Sabbath.) Christians were also forbidden from receiving gifts from Jews or matzoh (4) from Jewish festivals and “impieties.” (5)
It wasn’t all bad news in those early centuries. Judaism was not a “prohibited sect,” according to the Codex Theodosianus of 438 CE. Rabbis were entitled to the same privileges as Christian clergy. Jews were not to be disturbed on their Sabbath or Feast Days. Their synagogues were not to be attacked, violated, burned, or confiscated. However, conversion was a one-way street. Jews could convert to Christianity, and were encouraged to do so. However, Christians were forbidden to convert to Judaism. Also, Jews were forbidden to own Christian slaves, but Christians could own Jewish slaves. Christians were forbidden under penalty of death to marry Jews. Jewish tribunals were considered valid only in matters purely religious. The Fiscus Judaicus (Jewish tax) from earlier centuries was maintained, a tax which only Jews were required to pay to government authorities.
The few protections offered by the Codex Judaicus were relatively short-lived. It wasn’t many decades until attacks on Jews and their synagogues became commonplace. The Jew was a second-class citizen, somewhat protected by law, but merely tolerated, something akin to the dhimmi status that is given to non-Moslems in Islamic countries. However, these were the “good old days” compared to the horrors that would be inflicted upon Jews in later centuries by the “Church triumphant.” Rav Shaul (Paul) commanded the Christians to “provoke the Jews to jealousy” with righteous living. Unfortunately, Christians kept only half the commandment; they provoked the Jews.
The Council of Nicea (the first genuinely Roman Catholic council) was very creedal oriented. This is still very true of most of Christianity today. Creeds (what you believe) is far more important than what you believe. In Judaism, observance of the mitzvot (6) is the litmus test of a good Jew. Little emphasis is placed upon creeds. The emphasis upon creeds in the Christian church has resulted in the deaths of millions of martyrs and “heretics.” Christian love and charity were sadly lacking, even to other Christians. In fact, a Jew often had much better chances of survival than a Christian who was deemed to be a heretic.
I hasten to add the following comments: I know the difference between the genuine disciples of Yeshua and the pretenders. In this article, I have used the term Christian” even for those who were not born-again of the ruach (Spirit) of God. However, they called themselves Christians, and were considered as such by others, including the pagans. This article is not intended to slander the true disciples of Yeshua, whether they be Jews or Gentiles.
Copyright © Petah Tikvah Magazine
From Petah Tikvah Magazine Vol. 14, No. 3
One of my favorite teachings that we all need to be aware of especially if we have people in our lives who are trying to tell us that the law is dead and Torah is only for the Jews.
208 verses! 208 verses in the New Testament that prove that the law is not dead and Torah is very relevant for our lives and our walk with the Messiah. They go through each of the verses and I had to pause between each one and make notes in my Bible. On many of them I even attached sticky notes in my Bible for these verses. It took me about 3 days to go through it completely.
This is a MUST HAVE if you are debating those in the Christian church or family members that say the law is done away with.
When talking with believers who say that Torah is not relevant, I will always reply with the following. “For every verse you give me in the NT that says that the law is done away with, I can give you 2-3 that says it’s not. So either there are a lot of contradictions in God’s word or there is a misunderstanding on someone’s part. And since we can agree that God’s word doesn’t have contradictions in it, a misunderstanding is probably what we are dealing with.”
1.) Is.2 [The Torah will be taught in the Millennial Kingdom]
2.) Is.8:20 [Those who are against the Torah have no light in them]
3.) Is.42:4 [The coastlands will wait for YHWH’s Torah]
4.) Is.42:21 [YHWH will exalt the Torah and make it honorable]
5.) Is.51:7 [The Torah mentioned to be on people’s hearts before Jer.31:33]
6.) Jer.31:33 [The Torah will be on our hearts during the Millennial Kingdom]
7.) Micah 4:2 [Nations will come to learn the Torah in the Millennial Kingdom]
8.) Zech.14:16-19 [The Feast of Tabernacles will be kept in the Millennial Kingdom (Lev.23)]
9.) Lam 2:9 [Jeremiah lamented that the Torah is no more. Why lament if it will be done away with?]
10.) Psalm 119 [David exalted the Torah]
11.) Matt.4:4-10 [Yeshua used the Torah to rebuke the adversary (Deut 8:3; 6:16; 6:13)]
12.) Matt.5:17-19 [Those who teach against Torah will be least in the Kingdom of Heaven]
13.) Matt.7:12 [The Golden Rule (Midrash on Torah)]
14.) Matt.9:20 [Yeshua wore Tzitziot (Num.15:38)]
15.) Matt.11:13 [Yeshua used the Torah & the Prophets to prove John the Baptist valid]
16.) Matt.12:5 [Yeshua interpreted the Sabbath]
17.) Matt.14:36 [Yeshua wore Tzitziot (Num.15:38)]
18.) Matt.22:36-40 [Yeshua taught the greatest commandments from the Torah USING the Torah]
19.) Matt.23:23 [Yeshua emphasized the weightier matters of the Torah USING the Torah]
20.) Mark 3:4 [Yeshua interpreted the Sabbath]
21.) Mark 6:18 [John the Baptist used Torah to rebuke Herod (Lev.20:21)]
22.) Mark 6:56 [Yeshua wore Tzitziot (Num.15:38)]
23.) Mark 10:5-12 [Yeshua taught on divorce using the creation account]
24.) Luke 2:21 [Yeshua circumcised on the eighth day (Lev.12:2-3)]
25.) Luke 2:22-39 [Yeshua was presented before YHWH as the first born (Ex.34:19)]
26.) Luke 2:24 [An offering was made for Yeshua being the first born (Lev.12:6)]
27.) Luke 4:16 [Yeshua’s custom was to attend Synagogue on the Sabbath day not Sunday]
28.) Luke 6:3-9 [Yeshua is Master of the Sabbath]
29.) Luke 10:26-28 [Yeshua encouraged Torah observance by elevating the weightier commandments]
30.) Luke 10:30-37 [Yeshua gave a parable of the good Samaritan/love your neighbor]
31.) Luke 14:5 [Yeshua preserved life on the Sabbath]
32.) Luke 16:16 [Yeshua used Torah and the Prophets to prove John the Baptist is valid]
33.) Luke 16:17 [It is easier for heaven & earth to pass away than for Torah to do so]
34.) Luke 24:44 [Suffering Servant Prophecy fulfilled]
35.) John 1:17 [Through the Torah, Messiah’s Grace was manifested] *
36.) John 1:45 [Phillip used the Torah & the Prophets to convince Nathaniel about Yeshua being Messiah]
37.) John 5:8 [Yeshua healed a lame man on the Sabbath]
38.) John 7:19 [Yeshua used the Torah to defend Himself]
39.) John 7:22-23 [Yeshua interpreted the Sabbath]
40.) John 7:24 [Yeshua taught to judge righteously (Lev.19:15)]
41.) John 7:49 [Yeshua said those who do not know Torah are accursed]
42.) John 7:51 [Nicodemus used the Torah to prove Yeshua innocent]
43.) John 8:5-12 [Yeshua won the challenge concerning the woman in “adultery” (Lev.20:10)]
44.) Acts 2 [The disciples celebrated Shavuot (Pentecost)]
45.) Acts 6:13 [False witnesses accused the disciples of teaching against the Torah]
46.) Acts 13:14 [Paul went to Synagogue on Sabbath]
47.) Acts 13:15 [Paul attended Synagogue on Sabbath]
48.) Acts 13:39 [Paul taught the Torah and the Prophets in Synagogue]
49.) Acts 13:42 [Gentiles wanted to hear more about Torah and Messiah next Sabbath]
50.) Acts 13:44 [Almost the whole city came the next Sabbath and wanted to learn]
51.) Acts 13:46 [Paul and Barnabas decided to teach Torah/Prophets to the Gentiles (Is.49:6)]
52.) Acts 13:48 [Gentiles were filled with gladness because they get to learn about Yeshua & Torah]
53.) Acts 13:49 [Torah and the Prophets were spread throughout all the region of Antioch]
54.) Acts 15:21 [Moses was taught in all the cities in Synagogues on the Sabbath Day]
55.) Acts 15:28-29
[New gentile converts were to keep the kosher laws of Torah before learning the rest of it]
[Foods offered to idols/eating blood/eating things strangled/sexual immorality]
56.) Acts 16:13 [Prayer was customarily made on the Sabbath Day]
57.) Acts 17:2-4 [Paul taught Yeshua and Torah for THREE Sabbaths not three Sundays!]
58.) Acts 18:4 [Paul persuaded Jews and Greeks about Yeshua EVERY Sabbath!]
59.) Acts 18:13 [False witness accused Paul of teaching against Torah]
60.) Acts 18:18 [Paul takes a Nazirite vow and shaves his head (Num.6)]
61.) Acts 20:6 [Paul sails to Philippi AFTER Unleavened Bread. Why mention this if it’s done away with?]
62.) Acts 20:7-12 [Paul kept the Sabbath and taught for Havdallah until midnight]
63.) Acts 20:16 [Paul wanted to arrive in time at Jerusalem to keep Shavuot (Ex.34:22/Lev.23:15-22)]
64.) Acts 21:20 [New converts were ZEALOUS for the Torah!]
65.) Acts 21:24 [Paul showed that he keeps the Torah]
66.) Acts 21:28 [More false accusations saying that Paul taught against the Torah]
67.) Acts 22:12 [Paul used the Torah to say Ananias was a devout man]
68.) Acts 23:3 [Paul used the Torah to defend his position]
69.) Acts 23:4 [Paul quoted the Torah (Ex.22:28)]
70.) Acts 24:14 [Paul believed all things in the Torah and the Prophets]
71.) Acts 28:23 [Paul taught people the Torah and the Prophets]
72.) Rom.2:13 [Those who do the Torah and not just hear it are considered justified]
73.) Rom.3:31 [Faith does not make void Torah]
74.) Rom.6:15 [Grace is not permission to sin]
75.) Rom.7:2 [Paul taught the laws of marriage & divorce (Deut.24)]
76.) Rom.7:7 [The Torah is not sin]
77.) Rom.7:12 [The Torah is holy, just, and good]
78.) Rom.7:26 [The Torah is good]
79.) Rom.7:22 [Paul delighted in the Torah of YHWH]
80.) Rom.13:18 [Love fulfills the Torah]
81.) Rom.13:10 [Love fulfills the Torah]
82.) 1Cor.1:18 [Paul quoted Isaiah 29:14 for his doctrine]
83.) 1Cor.1:31 [Paul quoted Jeremiah 9:24]
84.) 1Cor.2:9 [Paul quoted Isaiah 64:4]
85.) 1Cor.2:16 [Paul quoted Isaiah 40:13]
86.) 1Cor.3:19 [Paul quoted Job 5:13]
87.) 1Cor.3:20 [Paul quoted Psalm 94:11]
88.) 1Cor.5:1 [Paul used Torah to rebuke sin (Lev.20:11)
89.) 1Cor.5:6-8 [Paul encouraged believers to keep Passover (Lev.23)]
90.) 1Cor.5:9-11 [Paul taught to not be yoked with the sexually immoral (Lev.20)]
91.) 1Cor.5:12-13 [Paul quoted Deut.17:7; 19:19; 22:21; 24:7]
92.) 1Cor.6:9-10 [Paul listed immoral actions defined by Torah (Lev.20)]
93.) 1Cor.6:16 [Paul quotes Gen.2:24]
94.) 1Cor.7:10-11 [Paul taught on marriage and divorce (Deut.24)]
95.) 1Cor.7:19 [Paul taught that keeping the Torah is more important than IMMEDIATE circumcision]*
96.) 1Cor.7:39 [Paul taught the laws of marriage and re-marriage]
97.) 1Cor.9:9-12 [Paul did a midrash on Deut.25:4]
98.) 1Cor.9:21 [Paul kept YHWH’s Torah when ministering to those who didn’t have the Torah]
99.) 1Cor.10:1-22 [Paul did a midrash on Ex.32:6]
100.) 1Cor.10:26 [Paul quoted Psalm 24:1]
101.) 1Cor.14:21 [Paul quoted Isaiah 28:11-12]
102.) 1Cor.15:27 [Paul quoted Psalm 8:6]
103.) 1Cor.15:32 [Paul quoted Isaiah 22:13]
104.) 1Cor.15:45 [Paul quoted Gen.2:7]
105.) 1Cor.15:54 [Paul quoted Isaiah 25:8]
106.) 1Cor.15:55 [Paul quoted Hosea 13:14]
107.) 2Cor.3:12-17 [Paul did a midrash on the veil of Moses (Ex.34:33-35)]
108.) 2Cor.4:13 [Paul quoted Psalm 116:10]
109.) 2Cor.6:2 [Paul quoted Isaiah 49:8]
110.) 2Cor.6:16 [Paul quoted Lev.26:12/Jeremiah 32:38/Ezekiel 37:27]
111.) 2Cor.6:17 [Paul quoted Isaiah 52:11/Ezekiel 20:34; 41]
112.) 2Cor.6:18 [Paul quoted 2 Samuel 7:14]
113.) 2Cor.8:15 [Paul quoted Ex.16:18]
114.) 2Cor.9:9 [Paul quoted Psalm 112:9]
115.) 2Cor.10:17 [Paul quoted Jeremiah 9:24]
116.) 2Cor.13:1 [Paul quotes Deut.19:15]
117.) Gal.3:6 [Paul quoted Gen.15:6]
118.) Gal.3:8 [Paul quoted Gen.12:3; 18:18; 22:18; 26:4; 28:14]
119.) Gal.3:10 [Paul quoted Deut.27:26]
120.) Gal.3:11 [Paul quoted Habakkuk 2:4]
121.) Gal 3:12 [Paul quoted Lev.18:5]
122.) Gal.3:13 [Paul quoted Deut 11:26-28; 27:15-26]
123.) Gal.3:16 [Paul quoted Gen.12:7; 13:15; 24:7]
124.) Gal.4:27 [Paul quoted Isaiah 54:1]
125.) Gal.4:30 [Paul quoted Gen.21:10]
126.) Gal.5:14 [Paul quoted Lev.19:18]
127.) Eph.4:8 [Paul quoted Psalm 68:18]
128.) Eph.4:25 [Paul quoted Zechariah 8:16]
129.) Eph.4:26 [Paul quoted Psalm 4:4]
130.) Eph.5:31 [Paul quoted Gen.2:24]
131.) Eph.6:2 [Paul quoted Deut.5:16]
132.) Philipp.2:17 [Paul related himself to a drink offering (Lev.23:13)]
133.) 1Thess.4:2 [Paul taught to walk in the Commandments of YHWH]
134.) 1Thess.4:3 [Paul taught to avoid sexual immorality (Lev.20)]
135.) 1Thess.5:1-11 [Paul taught that those who don’t know the Feast Days are in darkness/blind]
136.) 2Thess.1:8 [Paul quoted Isaiah 24:23]
137.) 1Tim.1:8 [Paul taught that the Torah is good if one uses it right]
138.) 1Tim.5:18 [Paul quoted Deut.25:4]
139.) 1Tim.5:19 [Paul taught the concept of two witnesses (Deut.19:15)]
140.) 2Tim.3:15 [Paul said Timothy had known the “Holy Scriptures” (Torah/Prophets) since his youth]
141.) 2Tim.3:16 [Paul referred to the Torah/Prophets when he said “Scripture, Doctrine, Instruction”]
142.) 2Tim.4:6 [Paul related himself as a drink offering (Lev.23:13)]
143.) Titus 2:9 [Paul taught obedience to the Torah concerning bondservants & masters (Deut.15:12-18)]
144.) Titus 2:14 [Paul taught that Yeshua died so we will have zeal for good works (Torah)]
145.) Heb.1:5 [quoted Ps.2:7/2Sam.7:14]
146.) Heb.1:6 [quoted Deut.32:43/Psalm 97:7]
147.) Heb.1:7 [quoted Ps.104:4]
148.) Heb.1:9 [quoted Ps.45:6-7]
149.) Heb.1:12 [quoted Ps.102:25-27]
150.) Heb.1:13 [quoted Ps.110:1]
151.) Heb.2:8 [quoted Ps.8:4-6]
152.) Heb.2:12 [quoted Ps.22:22]
153.) Heb.2:13 [quoted 2Sam.22:3/Isaiah 8:17-18]
154.) Heb.3:11 [quoted Ps. 5:7-11]
155.) Heb.3:15 [quoted Ps.95:7-8]
156.) Heb.4:3 [quoted Ps.95:11]
157.) Heb.4:4 [quoted Gen.2:2]
158.) Heb.4:5 [quoted Ps.95:11]
159.) Heb.4:7 [quoted Ps.95:7-8]
160.) Heb.5:5 [quoted Ps.2:7]
161.) Heb.5:6 [quoted Ps.110:4]
162.) Heb.6:14 [quoted Gen.22:17]
163.) Heb.7:17 [quoted Ps.110:4]
164.) Heb.7:21 [quoted Ps.110:4]
165.) Heb.8:5 [quoted Ex.25:40]
166.) Heb.8:12 [quoted Jer.31:31-34]
167.) Heb.9:20 [quoted Ex. 24:8]
168.) Heb.10:7 [quoted Ps.40:6-8]
169.) Heb.10:16 [quoted Jer.31:33]
170.) Heb.10:17 [quoted Jer.31:34]
171.) Heb.10:30 [quoted Deut.32:35-36]
172.) Heb.10:37 [quoted Hab.2:3-4]
173.) Heb.11:5 [quoted Gen.5:24]
174.) Heb.11:18 [quoted Gen.21:2]
175.) Heb.12:6 [quoted Prov.3:11-12]
176.) Heb.12:20 [quoted Ex.19:12-13]
177.) Heb.12:21 [quoted Deut.9:19]
178.) Heb.12:26 [quoted Hag.2:6]
179.) Heb.13:5 [quoted Deut.31:6-8/Josh.1:5]
180.) Heb.13:6 [quoted Ps.118:6]
181.) Jam.1:22-24 [James taught to be a doer of the Word]
182.) Jam.1:25 [The Torah is liberating]
183.) Jam.2:8 [James quoted Lev.19:18]
184.) Jam.2:11 [James quoted Ex.20:13-14/Deut.5:17-18]
185.) Jam.2:23 [James quoted Gen.15:6]
186.) Jam.3:2-12 [James did a midrash on the evil tongue (Lev.14)]
187.) Jam.4:6 [James quoted Prov.3:34]
188.) Jam.4:12 [James said YHWH is our Lawgiver. Why need a Lawgiver if the Law is done away with?]
189.) 1Pet.1:16 [Peter quoted Lev.11:44-45; 19:2; 20:7]
190.) 1Pet.1:25 [Peter quoted Isaiah.40:6-8]
191.) 1Pet.2:6 [Peter quoted Isaiah 28:16]
192.) 1Pet.2:7 [Peter quoted Ps.118:22]
193.) 1Pet.2:8 [Peter quoted Isaiah 8:14]
194.) 1Pet.2:22 [Peter quoted Isaiah 53:9]
195.) 1Pet.3:12 [Peter quoted Ps.34:12-16
196.) 1Pet.3:14 [Peter quoted Isaiah 8:12]
197.) 1Pet.4:8 [Peter quoted Prov.10:12]
198.) 1Pet.4:11 [Peter taught to speak as the Oracles of YHWH (Heb.5:12; Acts 7:38; Rom.3:2)]
199.) 1Pet.4:18 [Peter quoted Prov.11:31]
200.) 1Pet.5:5 [Peter quoted Prov.3:34]
201.) 2Pet.2:22 [Peter quoted Prov.26:11]
202.) 1Jo.2:3-5 [We are YHWH’s children if we keep His commandments]
203.) 1Jo.2:6 [We are to walk as Yeshua Messiah walked (Torah)]
204.) 1Jo.3:4 [Sin is violating the Torah]
205.) 1Jo.3:22 [We are to do YHWH’s commandments and do things that are pleasing to Him]
206.) 1Jo.3:23 [To believe in Yeshua as Messiah is a Torah based faith]
207.) 1Jo.3:24 [Those who keep YHWH’s commandments abide in Him, and He in them]
208.) 1Jo.5:2 [We are YHWH’s children if we keep His commandments]
209.) 1Jo.53 [It is the love of YHWH to keep His commandments and they aren’t a burden]
210.) 2Jo.1:6 [It is love to walk in His commandments]
211.) 2Jo.1:9 [Violators of Torah do not abide in the teaching of Yeshua which is to follow Torah]
[Those who abide in the teaching of Messiah has both YHWH and Yeshua]
212.) 2Jo.1:10 [John said to have nothing to do with those who teach against the teaching of Messiah]
213.) Jude 1:12 [“love feasts” were the Feast Days (Lev.23)]
214.) Rev.1:6 [The Torah comes forth from Yeshua’s mouth]
215.) Rev.12:17 [The adversary is enraged mainly with those who keep Torah & believe in Yeshua]
216.) Rev.14:12 [Those who endure are they that keep the Torah and believe in Yeshua]
217.) Rev.19:15 [Yeshua judges and strikes the nations with the Torah (Word of YHWH/His Sword)]